some Perspective : FAST GC has been around in priinciple since 1962 but tends to have become a “bad name” for practical chemists . . . disillusionment perhaps. There is much obfuscation over the years by GC H’ware OEMs and Columns OEMs in a catch up “see saw” vs commercial interests in what is currently achievable and. . . what’s worthwhile pursuing Now (2012) column technology exceeds capabilities of the H/ware to match the FAST GC Potential - Compromises still exist ! But tremendous advances are still being made . . . even towards commercialisation of 2D-GC - It’s really FAST becoming a matter of whether Chemists and management can think fast enough and sample collection & data processing times are the drag on a lab - data analysis being relatively minor compared to actually analysing and interpretation of “ the meaning of the results” AND the necessity in the first place
FAST Screening of samples in the field - GC portability AND decent Column resolution . . . over a wide temperature range . . . are ALL important !
Process Control GC - has always lagged analytical GC - by definition the requirements are relatively Simple -often stifled by ”engineers mentality” FAST analysis speed - means cost saving in lost raw materials based on huge product throughputs, operator time and even in maintenance - simplifying old column technology (multiple column / complex switching valves) . . . and often absurd, expensive h’ware limitations where STILL isothermal / hotplate oven designs exist
Calidus has some ANSWERS !
THE compromise are still there AND FalconAnalytical are working on them
the TECHNLOGY IS HERE - for significantly upgrading GC to getting FASTER Separations . . . and at decent resolution but . . . some of the “bullshit” still has to be weeded out ! AND patents is but one them! . . . the basic ideas have been around for 40 to 50 years
some Theory Re UltraFAST GC - Increasing GC Speed some Tips PDF The Rise and Fall of Expertise in Gas Chromatography(LCGC) PDF Pivotal Article JofC 2004 195-267PDF
for isothermal GC Nt=5.54(Tr/W50)^2; Neff=5.54((Tr-Ta)/W50)^2 k=(Tr-Ta(/Ta Neff=N t x (k/k+1) So. . . R=1/4SqRt(Neff)
for Temp Prog GC
some Fast GC Data - “evidence” suggest 5m 0.1mm needs >300Hz Data System Calidus GC perhaps “compromised” by 100Hz and to peaks ~0.5-1s fastest ???
A consensus appears to be . . . For method transference from Conventional Capillary GC to FASTGC AND maintaining equivalent peak resolution and separation selectivity PT rates propl to 10(degC/min) / (Ta)
the “jury is still out” . . . evidence suggest VD Curve flattens out as IDs are reduced from 0.25>0.1 > 50micron . . . moreso for H2 than He evidence also shows that GC H’ware A/D speeds are a factor; 300Hz is suggested as a MIN . . . if you can get IT ! NOTE : N2 is also quite useless for FAST GC
some practical examples of FAST GC PDFGuide to the use of FAST GC - MEGA PDF
for optimum resolution and assuming 10/ta = k even assuming linear velocity with H2 can be increased by x 50% for a MAX temp prog rate of 100degC/min (. . . even for 50micron columns ) Any higher rates would appear to suffer from loss of resolution - but THAT’s OK for simple(r) separations MY Ideal 10m 0.1mm MXT at ~max of 60deg/min to max of 400Cmax in 5 to 10 mins ** but could potentially be 1/2 that with 50micron columns BUT Injection speed and A/D speeds then become increasingly siginificant / limiting factor in degrading the “potential” column performance ** there are few commercial GCs that can achieve that oven temperatures at over 200DegC Calidus is one of the few ! - the max of 300degC/min max would appear to be a bit superfluous as separations in 40 seconds are JUST not obtained without severe loss in peak resolution
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